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Operating System Version 0.2

Chapter IV - Installing and Removing Software

Introduction to Software Management

As with most operating systems you will probably want to install some additional applications, or potentially remove some of the defaults that you don't find particularly useful. Ready Linux comes with Advanced Packaging Tool which manages your software via the command-line.

Linux manages software through packages, individual units of software that contain user interfaces, modules, and libraries. Most applications link several co-dependent packages together, and still others allow you to choose which packages to install and which to leave out at your own discretion. This can get confusing, so there’s a package manager at your disposal to help

The Advanced Packaging Tool has a family of commands that allows you to add repositories; search for, install, and remove packages; and even simulate upgrades and such. The commands are fairly easy to remember and use, so you’ll be managing your system’s software in no time at all.

APT requires super-user permissions, as it deals with core aspects of the system, so you’ll need to preface most commands with “sudo.”



Here are 7 simple commands that should get you up and running in regards to software management in the Ready Linux.

sudo apt-get update

Ready Linux keeps a list of all available software and the versions of that software from all available sources. It makes sense to update that list periodically so that Ready Linux will know to look for new versions of installed software and so that it can be aware of new software that is available. The "apt-get update" command tells Ready Linux to refresh this list so that it can take advantage of the most recent software updates and additions. Note that "apt-get update" does not actually install any software, it simply informs the system of what is available.

sudo apt-get upgrade

This will tell you how many and which packages need updating and will ask for a confirmation before it continues.

Remember, you may need to update first. Upgrade will replace older versions of programs with their newer versions. This is a replacement process; the same package name is required and the older version is replaced with a newer version. No completely new packages are installed and no packages are uninstalled.

Some programs don’t quite work that way. They require a package with a slightly different name to be removed and a new one with a different name to be installed. Sometimes a program’s new version has a new required package. In these cases, you’ll need to use dist-upgrade.

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

This command will perform the same function as "apt-get upgrade" however it will install additional packages that new versions depend on, and it will remove packages that cause conflicts.

apt-cache search

When you want to install packages, but you do not know the complete name of the packages you want to install, then you can get help from apt-cache command.

Apt-cache performs a variety of operations on APT's package cache. Apt-cache does not manipulate the state of the system but does provide operations to search and generate interesting output from the package metadata.

Let's say you need to install libreoffice modules, you can find them using apt-cache search libreoffice.

sudo apt-get install

Now we get to the fun part. The "apt-get install" command will install any available package by including the package name after the command If you want to install the Leafpad text editor, then type "sudo apt-get install leafpad". If you want to install libreoffice, then type "sudo apt-get install libreoffice".

Applications like Leafpad, which have no additional dependencies, will simply download and install after you enter your password. Applications like Libreoffice, which has a lot of dependencies, will prompt you for whether or not you want to install all of the required dependencies before moving forward.

sudo apt-get remove

Removing software is just the same as installing it except for one word. Just like with the "apt-get install" command, simply add the name of the application you wish to remove after the "apt-get remove" command and hit "Enter". You may be prompted for your password, then the command will ask you to verify using "y" or "n" and if you select "y" then the application will be removed. Configuration files from the removed application will stay on the system in case you later decide to reinstall the application. There's really not much to it.

sudo apt-get purge

This command is just like "apt-get remove" however it will remove any configuration files associated with the application being removed as well.

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